The adjective clause is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause. The introductory word will always rename the word that it follows and modifies except when used with a preposition which will come between the introductory word and the word it renames. Examples: The student whose hand was up gave the wrong answer. Whose hand was up is the adjective clause with whose, the relative pronoun, renaming and modifying student. Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidence. Whom I can place my confidence is the adjective clause with whom, the relative pronoun, with the preposition inbetween it and person the word that whom renames and modifies.
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. It usually modifies the verb.
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionsincluding after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.
Example: They arrived before the game had ended. (“before the game had ended” is the adverb clause modifying the verb arrived telling when.)
A noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used the same ways as a noun or pronoun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. Notice that some of these words also introduce adjective and adverb clauses. (To check a noun clause substitute the pronoun it or the proper form of the pronouns heor she for the noun clause.) Examples: I know who said that. (I know it.) Whoever said it is wrong. (He is wrong.) Sometimes a noun clause is used without the introductory word. Example: I know that he is here. (I know he is here.)
Instructions: Find the adjective, adverb, or noun clauses in these sentences. If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause, tell if it is used as the subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
1. Donna is my mother-in-law who died several years ago.
2. Atlantic City is where the Boardwalk is located.
3. The man had another back operation because he ruptured another disk.
4. A nurse can find a job wherever she goes.
5. Now I understand why you didn’t want to attend.
–For answers scroll down.
1. who died several year ago = adjective clause modifying the predicate nominative mother-in-law
2. where the Boardwalk is located = noun clause used as the predicate nominative
3. because he ruptured another disk = adverb clause modifying the verb had
4. wherever she goes = adverb clause modifying the verb can find
5. why you didn’t want to attend = noun clause used as the direct object
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