A clause is a group of words having a subject and a verb. An independent clause can stand alone as a sentence. A dependent clause is always used as some part of speech. It can be an adjective, adverb, or noun. It cannot stand alone as a sentence.
A phrase is a group of words used as a sentence part. It does not have a subject and a verb. It can be a noun, adjective or adverb. We have studied the following phrases: prepositional, gerund, participial, and infinitive.
A compound sentence combines two or more independent clauses. Commas separate the clauses of a compound sentence. (A short sentence joined by andis sometimes combined without a comma.) Example: She talks and he listens. A semicolon can take the place of the conjunction and comma. Only clauses closely related in thought should be joined to make a compound sentence.
Instructions: Tell whether the words in quotation marks are independent clauses, dependent clauses, prepositional phrases, participial phrases, gerund phrases, or infinitive phrases.
1. “When I received the email,” I knew it was “not to be opened.”
2. When you go to the store, “buy some ice cream and cookies.”
3. The vase must have been broken “by the grandchildren.”
4. “Having been left alone,” the boy jumped at every noise.
5. “Planning a successful wedding” requires lots of work.
–For answers scroll down.
1. When I received the email = dependent clause, not to be opened = infinitive phrase
2. buy some ice cream and cookies = independent clause
3. by the grandchildren = prepositional phrase
4. Having been left alone = participial phrase
5. Planning a successful wedding = gerund phrase
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