A participle is used as an adjective and ends in various ways. A present participle always ends with ing as does the gerund, but remember that it is an adjective. A past participle ends with ed, n, or irregularly. Examples: played, broken, brought, sung, seeing, having seen, being seen, seen, having been seen. Participles modify nouns and pronouns and can precede or follow the word modified. (Do not confuse participles that end in ing with gerunds. Participles are used as adjectives; gerunds are used as nouns.)
A participial phrase is made up of a participle and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers) like the gerund. A participial phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.
An infinitive is to plus a verb form. It can be used as an adjective. Examples: to be, to see, to be seen, to be eaten.
An infinitive phrase is made up of an infinitive and any complements (direct objects, predicate nominatives, predicate adjectives, or modifiers) like the gerund. An infinitive phrase that comes at the beginning of the sentence is always followed by a comma and modifies the subject of the sentence.
Instructions: Find the participles and the participial and infinitive phrases in these sentences and tell what word they modify.
1. The money lying on the dresser is yours.
2. The crying child awakened everyone.
3. The heavy package to be sent was quickly loaded.
4. Hearing the noise, the girl was suddenly afraid.
5. There are several things to be considered first.
–For answers scroll down.
1. lying on the dresser modifies money
2. crying modifies child
3. to be sent modifies package
4. Hearing the noise modifies girl
5. to be considered first modifies things
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