The adjective clause is used to modify a noun or a pronoun. It will begin with a relative pronoun (who, whose, whom, which, and that) or a subordinate conjunction (when and where). Those are the only words that can be used to introduce an adjective clause. The introductory word will always rename the word that it follows and modifies except when used with a preposition which will come between the introductory word and the word it renames. Examples: The student whose hand was up gave the wrong answer. Whose hand was up is the adjective clause with whose, the relative pronoun, renaming and modifying student. Jane is a person in whom I can place my confidence. Whom I can place my confidence is the adjective clause with whom, the relative pronoun, with the preposition inbetween it and person the word that whom renames and
An adverb clause is a dependent clause that modifies a verb, adjective or another adverb. It usually modifies the verb.
Adverb clauses are introduced by subordinate conjunctionsincluding after, although, as, as if, before, because, if, since, so that, than, though, unless, until, when, where, and while. These are just some of the more common ones.
Example: They arrived before the game had ended. (“before the game had ended” is the adverb clause modifying the verb arrived telling when.)
A noun clause is a dependent clause that can be used the same ways as a noun or pronoun. It can be a subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition. Some of the words that introduce noun clauses are that, whether, who, why, whom, what, how, when, whoever, where, and whomever. Notice that some of these words also introduce adjective and adverb clauses. (To check a noun clause substitute the pronoun it or the proper form of the pronouns heor she for the noun clause.) Examples: I know who said that. (I know it.) Whoever said it is wrong. (He is wrong.) Sometimes a noun clause is used without the introductory word. Example: I know that he is here. (I know he is here.)
Instructions: Find the adjective, adverb or noun clauses in these sentences. If it is an adjective or adverb clause, tell which word it modifies, and if it is a noun clause, tell if it is used as the subject, predicate nominative, direct object, appositive, indirect object, or object of the preposition.
1. This year was the warmest year that we have had.
2. We waited for hours until we received word of his rescue.
3. The hiker whom I saw on Mount Timpanogos was eighty years old.
4. Mike thinks that he will win the lottery.
5. Who lost this wallet is a mystery to me.
–For answers scroll down.
1. that we have had = adjective clause modifying the predicate nominative year
2. until we received word of his rescue = adverb clause modifying the verb waited
3. whom I saw on Mount Timpanogos = adjective clause modifying the subject hiker
4. that he will win the lottery = noun clause used as the direct object
5. Who lost this wallet = noun clause used as the subject
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